NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope: The ultimate guide
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is an infrared space observatory that launched on Dec 25, 2021, from ESA’s launch site at Kourou in French Guiana, at 7:20 a.m. EST (1220 GMT; 9:20 a.m. local time in Kourou), aboard an Arianespace Ariane 5 rocket.
The $10 billion James Webb Space Telescope — NASA’s largest and most powerful space science telescope — will probe the cosmos to uncover the history of the universe from the Big Bang to alien planet formation and beyond. It is one of NASA’s Great Observatories, huge space instruments that include the likes of the Hubble Space Telescope to peer deep into the cosmos.
James Webb Space Telescope: Key facts
Launch date: Dec. 25, 2021.
Cost (at time of launch): $10 billion.
Orbit: JWST will orbit the sun, around the second Lagrange point (L2), nearly 1 million miles (1.5 million kilometers) from Earth.
Primary mirror size: 21.3 feet (6.5 meters) across.
Sunshield: 69.5 ft by 46.5 ft (22 meters x 12 meters).
Mass: 14,300 lbs (6,500 kg).
It took 30 days for the James Webb Space Telescope to travel nearly a million miles (1.5 million kilometers) to its permanent home: a Lagrange point — a gravitationally stable location in space. The telescope arrived at L2, the second sun-Earth Lagrange point on Jan. 24, 2022. L2 is a spot in space near Earth that lies opposite from the sun; this orbit will allow the telescope to stay in line with Earth as it orbits the sun. It has been a popular spot for several other space telescopes, including the Herschel Space Telescope and the Planck Space Observatory.
According to NASA (opens in new tab), the James Webb Space Telescope will focus on four main areas: first light in the universe, assembly of galaxies in the early universe, birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, and planets (including the origins of life.)
The James Webb Space Telescope will undergo a series of science and calibration tests including sunshield deployment, telescope deployment, instrument turn-on and telescope alignment. (Image credit: Future) (opens in new tab)
The JWST is currently undergoing a series of science and calibration tests (opens in new tab).
On June 17 NASA announced that Webb was about halfway through its instrument checks. “As of today, 7 out of Webb’s 17 instrument modes are ready for science,” NASA said on Twitter (opens in new tab).
A detailed instrument mode “check-off” list is also available on the “Where is Webb” agency webpage (opens in new tab).
The powerful James Webb Space Telescope is also expected to take amazing photos of celestial objects like its predecessor, the Hubble Space Telescope. Luckily for astronomers, the Hubble Space Telescope remains in good health and it’s probable that the two telescopes will work together for JWST’s first years. JWST will also look at exoplanets that the Kepler Space Telescope found, or follow up on real-time observations from ground space telescopes.
The James Webb Space Telescope is the product of an impressive international (opens in new tab) collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency. According to NASA, the JWST involved over 300 universities, organizations and companies across 29 U.S. states and 14 countries. The nominal duration for the James Webb Space Telescope is five years but the goal is 10 years According to ESA (opens in new tab).
James Webb Space Telescope launch and deployment
For the latest mission news and updates, check out our NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope mission: Live updates page.
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) launched on Dec 25, 2021, from ESA’s launch site at Kourou in French Guiana, at 7:20 a.m. EST (1220 GMT; 9:20 a.m. local time in Kourou), aboard an Arianespace Ariane 5 rocket.
Thanks to a successful and precise launch, NASA announced that the JWST should have enough fuel to more than double its minimum mission life expectancy of 10 years. Since, its launch, the James Webb Space Telescope’s accomplishments just keep on coming.
An impressive HD video captured the observatory flying away from the Ariane 5 rocket that carried it into space. The three-minute video shows Webb slowly drifting away from its rocket stage and unfurling its solar panels. This video is particularly remarkable as it marks the last view we’ll ever see of the James Webb Space Telescope as the observatory doesn’t have any cameras onboard.
The James Webb Space Telescope after separating from the Ariane 5 rocket that carried it into space. This is one of our last views of the impressive telescope. (Image credit: ESA) (opens in new tab)
The James Webb Space Telescope deployed and tested a key antenna on Dec. 26, 2021, in a process that took about one hour, according to a NASA statement (opens in new tab). The antenna will be responsible for twice-daily science data dumps to Earth. Just a day later, on Dec. 27, the observatory sailed beyond the orbit of the moon.
On Dec. 31, 2021, Webb successfully unfurled its massive sunshield. The tensioning of the sunshield’s five layers began on Jan, 3. 2022 and was completed the next day. The telescope’s secondary mirror was then successfully deployed and latched on Jan. 5, 2022.
Then on Jan, 8. 2022, NASA announced that the James Webb Space Telescope had successfully unfolded the giant primary mirror and is now fully deployed. The next step for Webb is the alignment of the 18 individual mirrors that make up the observatory’s primary mirror. NASA estimates the work could take up to 120 days after launch for the alignment to be complete.
The James Webb Space Telescope reached its final destination: L2, the second sun-Earth Lagrange point, which it will orbit, on Jan, 24. 2022 after traveling nearly a million miles (1.5 million kilometers). Lagrange points are gravitationally stable points in space.
The first published image taken by the James Webb Space Telescope shows part of a mosaic created over 25 hours beginning on Feb. 2, 2022, early in the process of aligning the 18 segments of the James Webb Space Telescope’s mirror. (Image credit: NASA) (opens in new tab)
The main Webb image release event will take place on July 12, at 10:30 a.m. EDT (1430 GMT).
Additional image events will take place later in the day and also on July 13.
Webb has already treated us to several impressive images during its various instrument checks.
On Feb, 11. NASA announced (opens in new tab) that The James Webb Space Telescope had captured its first images of starlight. The first image taken by Webb was of a star called HD 84406. Light from HD84406 was captured by Webb’s 18 mirror segments located on the primary mirror, resulting in a mosaic of 18 scattered bright dots.
“As Webb aligns and focuses over the next few months, these 18 dots will slowly become a single star,” Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA’s Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, said on Twitter (opens in new tab).
On Feb, 18. NASA released a new and improved image of HD84406, bringing 18 unfocused copies of a star into a deliberate hexagonal formation. Once the observatory has successfully aligned the individual segments of the primary mirror it will begin the image stacking process. This will bring 18 images on top of each other into one clear view.
Webb has also taken an impressive “selfie” using a specialized camera inside the NIRCam instrument. The camera is designed to be used for engineering and alignment purposes.
A “selfie” shows the 18 segments of the James Webb Space Telescope’s primary mirror as seen from a specialized camera inside the NIRCam instrument. (Image credit: NASA) (opens in new tab)
In the “selfie” you can see one of the mirror segments is shining brighter than the others, this is because it is the only segment at the time successfully aligned and pointing at a star. The rest of the mirror segments were successfully aligned one by one.
On April 28, NASA announced in a statement that the James Webb Space Telescope had finished its alignment phase after demonstrating it can capture “crisp, well-focused images” will all four of its scientific instruments.
NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope can now capture sharp images of celestial objects with multiple instruments, the agency announced April 28, 2022. (Image credit: NASA/STScI) (opens in new tab)James Webb Space Telescope science mandate
JWST’s science mandate is principally divided among four areas:
First light and reionization
This refers to the early stages of the universe after the Big Bang started the universe as we know it today. In the first stages after the Big Bang, the universe was a sea of particles (such as electrons, protons and neutrons), and light was not visible until the universe cooled enough for these particles to begin combining. Another thing JWST will study is what happened after the first stars formed; this era is called “the epoch of reionization” because it refers to when neutral hydrogen was reionized (made to have an electric charge again) by radiation from these first stars.
The James Webb Space Telescope’s 21.3-foot (6.5 meter) diameter primary mirror. (Image credit: NASA/C. Gunn) (opens in new tab)
Assembly of galaxies
Looking at galaxies is a useful way to see how matter is organized on gigantic scales, which in turn gives us hints as to how the universe evolved. The spiral and elliptical galaxies we see today actually evolved from different shapes over billions of years, and one of JWST’s goals is to look back at the earliest galaxies to better understand that evolution. Scientists are also trying to figure out how we got the variety of galaxies that are visible today, and the current ways that galaxies form and assemble.
Birth of stars and protoplanetary systems
The Eagle Nebula’s “Pillars of Creation” are some of the most famous birthplaces for stars. Stars come to be in clouds of gas, and as the stars grow, the radiation pressure they exert blows away the cocooning gas (which could be used again for other stars, if not too widely dispersed.) However, it’s difficult to see inside the gas. JWST’s infrared eyes will be able to look at sources of heat, including stars that are being born in these cocoons.
Planets and origins of life
The last decade has seen vast numbers of exoplanets discovered, including with NASA’s planet-seeking Kepler Space Telescope. JWST’s powerful sensors will be able to peer at these planets in more depth, including (in some cases) imaging their atmospheres. Understanding the atmospheres and the formation conditions for planets could help scientists better predict if certain planets are habitable or not.
James Webb Space Telescope onboard instruments
The JWST will come equipped with four science instruments that will enable observations in visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared (0.6 to 28.5 micrometers) wavelengths.
Comparison of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope’s respective mirrors. (Image credit: Future/Adrian Mann) (opens in new tab)
The James Webb Space Telescope is referred to as the successor of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Scientific advancement is all about “standing on the shoulders of giants” and the JWST will do just that, as its scientific goals were motivated by the results (opens in new tab) from Hubble.
The two space telescopes have different capabilities, whilst Hubble primarily observed the cosmos in optical and ultraviolet wavelengths (with some infrared capabilities.) The JWST will primarily look at the universe in infrared. Due to the expansion of the universe, light from distant objects shifts to longer wavelengths (opens in new tab) at the redder end of the spectrum — known as redshifted, according to ESA. The JWST will observe this infrared light in great detail and shed light on some of the oldest stars and galaxies in the universe.
Another big difference between the James Webb Space Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope is that JWST will orbit the sun, whilst Hubble orbits Earth. JWST will be too far away to be serviced (opens in new tab), unlike Hubble which was accessed and serviced by space shuttle missions.
James Webb Space Telescope delays
Good things come to those who wait.
The JWST was first slated to fly in 2007 and since then astronomers’ patience has been sternly tested. A mix of engineering problems, political hesitancy and project management issues have all contributed to countless delays.
In July 2011, U.S. politicians threatened to pull funding (opens in new tab) for the JWST. After a nail-biting few months, the spacecraft was saved in November 2011. Then in March 2018, the launch of JWST was delayed due to technical issues with the spacecraft (opens in new tab). Later that year in June, an independent review board (opens in new tab) recommended the launch to be moved to March 2021.
In 2020, The global coronavirus (COVID–19) pandemic impacted JWST’s progress and in July 2020, NASA announced a new launch date (opens in new tab) of October 31, 2021. Despite the perseverance and determination of the JWST team during a difficult time, the delays kept coming.
In June 2021, problems with the Ariane 5 launch vehicle pushed the launch date (opens in new tab) back to November or possibly early December 2021. Then in September NASA and ESA announced yet another delay as the observatory had not yet been shipped from its original location in California to ESA’s launch site at Kourou in French Guiana. The two agencies announced a new launch date of Dec.18, but bad weather soon put a stop to that.
Finally, the JWST successfully launched on Dec 25, 2021, from ESA’s launch site at Kourou in French Guiana, at 7:20 a.m. EST (1220 GMT; 9:20 a.m. local time in Kourou), on board an Arianespace Ariane 5 rocket.
The controversial naming of the James Webb Space Telescope
The space telescope was previously known as the Next Generation Space Telescope and was renamed (opens in new tab) the James Webb Space Telescope in Sept. 2002.
The JWST is named for former NASA chief James Webb. Webb took charge of the space agency from 1961 to 1968, retiring just a few months before NASA put the first man on the moon.
Although Webb’s tenure as NASA administrator is most closely associated with the Apollo moon program, he is also considered a leader in space science. Even in a time of great political turmoil, Webb set NASA’s science objectives, writing that launching a large space telescope should be a key goal of the space agency.
NASA launched more than 75 space science missions under Webb’s guidance. They included missions that studied the sun, stars and galaxies as well as space directly above Earth’s atmosphere.
Not everyone is happy with the choice of name for the space telescope. An online petition was set up by critics urging NASA to rename the telescope due to claims that Webb was complicit in discrimination against gay and lesbian NASA employees during his tenure. NASA has since said it will not rename the telescope despite complaints.
You can learn how the JWST is designed to answer some of the biggest questions in the universe with the UK Space Agency (opens in new tab) and explore it’s impressive mirrors (opens in new tab) with NASA. Keep yourself and others entertained with these fun facts and a folding puzzler (opens in new tab) from Northrop Grumman.